Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Approach to Growing Pains in Childhood in a Familial Mediterranean Fever Endemic Region

Ilke Beyitler 1 , * and Salih Kavukcu 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatology, Near East University Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: December 2017, 27 (6); e11546
  • Published Online: November 18, 2017
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: March 27, 2017
  • Revised: June 12, 2017
  • Accepted: September 2, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.11546

To Cite: Beyitler I, Kavukcu S. Approach to Growing Pains in Childhood in a Familial Mediterranean Fever Endemic Region, Iran J Pediatr. 2017 ; 27(6):e11546. doi: 10.5812/ijp.11546.

Abstract
Copyright © 2017, Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Etiopathogenesis
3. What Should Be Done?
4. Diseases That Should Be Excluded
5. How to Manage?
6. Conclusion
References
  • 1. Lowe RM, Hashkes PJ. Growing pains: a noninflammatory pain syndrome of early childhood. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2008; 4(10): 542-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Uziel Y, Hashkes PJ. Growing pains in children. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2007; 5: 5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Evans AM. Growing pains: contemporary knowledge and recommended practice. J Foot Ankle Res. 2008; 1(1): 4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Pavone V, Lionetti E, Gargano V, Evola FR, Costarella L, Sessa G. Growing pains: a study of 30 cases and a review of the literature. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011; 31(5): 606-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Mohanta MP. Growing pains: practitioners' dilemma. Indian Pediatr. 2014; 51(5): 379-83[PubMed]
  • 6. Evans AM, Scutter SD. Are foot posture and functional health different in children with growing pains? Pediatr Int. 2007; 49(6): 991-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Kaspiris A, Zafiropoulou C. Growing pains in children: epidemiological analysis in a Mediterranean population. Joint Bone Spine. 2009; 76(5): 486-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Viswanathan V, Khubchandani RP. Joint hypermobility and growing pains in school children. Pediatr Rheumatol. 2008; 26: 962-6
  • 9. Sperotto F, Balzarin M, Parolin M, Monteforte N, Vittadello F, Zulian F. Joint hypermobility, growing pain and obesity are mutually exclusive as causes of musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014; 32(1): 131-6[PubMed]
  • 10. Hashkes PJ, Friedland O, Jaber L, Cohen HA, Wolach B, Uziel Y. Decreased pain threshold in children with growing pains. J Rheumatol. 2004; 31(3): 610-3[PubMed]
  • 11. Uziel Y, Chapnick G, Jaber L, Nemet D, Hashkes PJ. Five-year outcome of children with "growing pains": correlations with pain threshold. J Pediatr. 2010; 156(5): 838-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Pathirana S, Champion D, Jaaniste T, Yee A, Chapman C. Somatosensory test responses in children with growing pains. J Pain Res. 2011; 4: 393-400[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Evans A, Scutter S, Lang L, Dansie B. Growing pains in young children: a study of the profile, experiences and quality of life issues of four to six year old children with recurrent leg pain. Foot. 2006; 16: 120-4
  • 14. Oberklaid F, Amos D, Liu C, Jarman F, Sanson A, Prior M. "Growing pains": clinical and behavioral correlates in a community sample. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997; 18(2): 102-6[PubMed]
  • 15. Uziel Y, Chapnick G, Oren-Ziv A, Jaber L, Nemet D, Hashkes PJ. Bone strength in children with growing pains: long-term follow-up. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012; 30(1): 137-40[PubMed]
  • 16. Friedland O, Hashkes PJ, Jaber L, Cohen HA, Eliakim A, Wolach B, et al. Decreased bone speed of sound in children with growing pains measured by quantitative ultrasound. J Rheumatol. 2005; 32(7): 1354-7[PubMed]
  • 17. Champion D, Pathirana S, Flynn C. Growing pains: Twin family study evidence for genetic susceptibility and a genetic relationship with restless legs syndrome. Eur J Pain. 2012;
  • 18. Park MJ, Lee J, Lee JK, Joo SY. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Korean Children Presenting with Nonspecific Lower-Extremity Pain. Yonsei Med J. 2015; 56(5): 1384-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Vehapoglu A, Turel O, Turkmen S, Inal BB, Aksoy T, Ozgurhan G, et al. Are Growing Pains Related to Vitamin D Deficiency? Efficacy of Vitamin D Therapy for Resolution of Symptoms. Med Princ Pract. 2015; 24(4): 332-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Morandi G, Maines E, Piona C, Monti E, Sandri M, Gaudino R, et al. Significant association among growing pains, vitamin D supplementation, and bone mineral status: results from a pilot cohort study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2015; 33(2): 201-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Qamar S, Akbani S, Shamim S, Khan G. Vitamin D levels in children with growing pains. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011; 21(5): 284-7[PubMed]
  • 22. Rajaram SS, Walters AS, England SJ, Mehta D, Nizam F. Some children with growing pains may actually have restless legs syndrome. Sleep. 2004; 27(4): 767-73[PubMed]
  • 23. Balendran J, Champion D, Jaaniste T, Welsh A. A common sleep disorder in pregnancy: restless legs syndrome and its predictors. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011; 51(3): 262-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Hashkes PJ, Gorenberg M, Oren V, Friedland O, Uziel Y. "Growing pains" in children are not associated with changes in vascular perfusion patterns in painful regions. Clin Rheumatol. 2005; 24(4): 342-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Asadi-Pooya AA, Bordbar MR. Are laboratory tests necessary in making the diagnosis of limb pains typical for growing pains in children? Pediatr Int. 2007; 49(6): 833-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Vasilopoulou M, Spathis A, Myriokefalitakis N, Zaferopoulou F, Paspati I, Tsolia M. Development of a screening tool for children's growing pains: validation, reliability control and clinical evaluation. Turk J Pediatr. 2015; 57(5): 467-74[PubMed]
  • 27. de Inocencio J. Musculoskeletal pain in primary pediatric care: analysis of 1000 consecutive general pediatric clinic visits. Pediatrics. 1998; 102(6)[PubMed]
  • 28. Kavukcu S, Turkmen MA, Soylu A, Bayram MT, Ulgenalp A. Myalgia as a symptom of familial Mediterranean fever in children. Rheumatol Int. 2012; 32(11): 3705-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Kavukcu S, Turkmen M, Soylu A, Kasap B, Tatli Gunes B. Skin and muscle involvement as presenting symptoms in four children with familial Mediterranean fever. Clin Rheumatol. 2009; 28(7): 857-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Soylu A, Kasap B, Turkmen M, Saylam GS, Kavukcu S. Febrile myalgia syndrome in familial Mediterranean fever. J Clin Rheumatol. 2006; 12(2): 93-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Radhakrishna SM, Grimm A, Broderick L. Novel mutation identified in severe early-onset tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome: a case report. BMC Pediatr. 2017; 17(1): 108[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Behrens EM, Beukelman T, Gallo L, Spangler J, Rosenkranz M, Arkachaisri T, et al. Evaluation of the presentation of systemic onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: data from the Pennsylvania Systemic Onset Juvenile Arthritis Registry (PASOJAR). J Rheumatol. 2008; 35(2): 343-8[PubMed]
  • 33. Kumar S, Nair S, Rajam L. Case series of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus from Kerala: comparison with other Indian series. Int J Rheum Dis. 2010; 13(4): 391-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Gherardi RK, Authier FJ. Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology. Lupus. 2012; 21(2): 184-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Shah M, Mamyrova G, Targoff IN, Huber AM, Malley JD, Rice MM, et al. The clinical phenotypes of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2013; 92(1): 25-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Venables PJ. Management of patients presenting with Sjogren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006; 20(4): 791-807[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Jennette JC. Overview of the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013; 17(5): 603-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Yalcinkaya F, Ozcakar ZB, Kasapcopur O, Ozturk A, Akar N, Bakkaloglu A, et al. Prevalence of the MEFV gene mutations in childhood polyarteritis nodosa. J Pediatr. 2007; 151(6): 675-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Naranje S, Kelly DM, Sawyer JR. A Systematic Approach to the Evaluation of a Limping Child. Am Fam Physician. 2015; 92(10): 908-16[PubMed]
  • 40. Beyitler I, Kocaoglu M, Kavukcu S. Bilateral knee pain in an adolescent girl; A case of chondromalacia patella. Turk Clin J Pediatr.
  • 41. Beyitler I, Kavukcu S. A case of Van-neck Odelberg disease and intermittent overuse injury. Arch Rheumatol. 2016; 31(4): 381-3
  • 42. Cohen EM, Fletcher AM, Darshan HM, Lee YC. A systematic review of psychosocial therapies for children with rheumatic diseases. Ped Rheumatol. 2017; 15(6)
  • 43. Goodyear SF, Arrol B. Growing pains, parents and children need reassuring about this self-limiting condition of unkown cause. BMJ. 2006; 333: 456-7
  • 44. Aeschlimann FA, Werner H, Jenni OG, Saurenmann RK. Are growing pains a parasomnia. Ped Rheumatol. 2012; 10
  • 45. Weiser P. Approach to the patient with noninflammatory musculoskeletal pain. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2012; 59(2): 471-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Baxter MP, Dulberg C. "Growing pains" in childhood--a proposal for treatment. J Pediatr Orthop. 1988; 8(4): 402-6[PubMed]
  • 47. Evans AM. Relationship between growing pain and foot posture in children: single case experimental design in clinical practice. J Am Pediatr Med Assoc. 2003; 93: 111-7
  • 48. Alcantara J, Davis J. The chiropractic care of children with "growing pains": a case series and systematic review of the literature. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011; 17(1): 28-32[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments