Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Prevalence of General and Abdominal Obesity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

Haleh Esmaili 1 , Maryam Bahreynian 1 , Mostafa Qorbani 2 , 3 , Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh 4 , Gelayol Ardalan 5 , Ramin Heshmat 6 and Roya Kelishadi 5 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Nutrition, Child Growth, Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
2 Department of Public Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Pediatrics, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
5 Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
6 Chronic Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: June 28, 2015, 25 (3)
  • Published Online: June 27, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 23, 2014
  • Revised: May 26, 2015
  • Accepted: May 29, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.25(3)2015.401

To Cite: Esmaili H, Bahreynian M, Qorbani M, Motlagh M E, Ardalan G, et al. Prevalence of General and Abdominal Obesity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study, Iran J Pediatr. 2015 ; 25(3):-. doi: 10.5812/ijp.25(3)2015.401.

Copyright © 2015, Growth & Development Research Center.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Misra A, Khurana L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(11 Suppl 1)-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, Reynolds K, He J. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008; 32(9): 1431-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Kelishadi R. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol Rev. 2007; 29: 62-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. James WP. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. J Intern Med. 2008; 263(4): 336-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Ghassemi H, Harrison G, Mohammad K. An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(1A): 149-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Azizi F, Ghanbarian A, Momenan AA, Hadaegh F, Mirmiran P, Hedayati M, et al. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II. Trials. 2009; 10: 5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Weiss R, Kaufman FR. Metabolic complications of childhood obesity: identifying and mitigating the risk. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31 Suppl 2-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Daniels SR. Complications of obesity in children and adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009; 33 Suppl 1-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Kipping RR, Jago R, Lawlor DA. Obesity in children. Part 1: Epidemiology, measurement, risk factors, and screening. BMJ. 2008; 337[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Lee YS. Consequences of childhood obesity. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009; 38(1): 75-7[PubMed]
  • 11. Murray CS, Canoy D, Buchan I, Woodcock A, Simpson A, Custovic A. Body mass index in young children and allergic disease: gender differences in a longitudinal study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011; 41(1): 78-85[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Tybor DJ, Lichtenstein AH, Dallal GE, Daniels SR, Must A. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93(2): 392-401[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Dimitri P, Bishop N, Walsh JS, Eastell R. Obesity is a risk factor for fracture in children but is protective against fracture in adults: a paradox. Bone. 2012; 50(2): 457-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. World Health Organization . World Health Organization's Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health: Turning Strategy into Action, The. 2005;
  • 15. Kelishadi R, Heshmat R, Motlagh ME, Majdzadeh R, Keramatian K, Qorbani M, et al. Methodology and Early Findings of the Third Survey of CASPIAN Study: A National School-based Surveillance of Students' High Risk Behaviors. Int J Prev Med. 2012; 3(6): 394-401[PubMed]
  • 16. Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R. Antropometric Standardization Reference Manual Human Kinetics Book. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL. 1988; 4(3)
  • 17. Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Hosseini M, Gouya MM, et al. Thinness, overweight and obesity in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Child Care Health Dev. 2008; 34(1): 44-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Ziaoddini H, Kelishadi R, Kamsari F, Mirmoghtadaee P, Poursafa P. First nationwide survey of prevalence of weight disorders in Iranian children at school entry. World J Pediatr. 2010; 6(3): 223-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Farhadian M, Moghimbeigi A, Aliabadi M. Mapping the obesity in iran by bayesian spatial model. Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(6): 581-7[PubMed]
  • 20. Veghari G, Joshaghani H, Niknezhad F, Sedaghat M, Hoseini A, Angizeh A, et al. Obesity in the north of Iran (south east of Caspian Sea). Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2010; 36(3): 100-1[PubMed]
  • 21. Farshidi H, Nikparvar M, Zare S, Bushehri E, Eghbal Eftekhaari T. Obesity pattern in South of Iran: 2002-2006. ARYA Atheroscler. 2010; 4(1)
  • 22. Kilpi F, Webber L, Musaigner A, Aitsi-Selmi A, Marsh T, Rtveladze K, et al. Alarming predictions for obesity and non-communicable diseases in the Middle East. Public Health Nutrition. 2013; 17(5): 1078-86[DOI]
  • 23. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009-2010 2012;
  • 24. Janssen I, Shields M, Craig CL, Tremblay MS. Prevalence and secular changes in abdominal obesity in Canadian adolescents and adults, 1981 to 2007-2009. Obes Rev. 2011; 12(6): 397-405[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. de Moraes AC, Fadoni RP, Ricardi LM, Souza TC, Rosaneli CF, Nakashima AT, et al. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in adolescents: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2011; 12(2): 69-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Kelishadi R, Haghdoost AA, Sadeghirad B, Khajehkazemi R. Trend in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Iranian children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition. 2014; 30(4): 393-400[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Obesity prevalence in the United States--up, down, or sideways? N Engl J Med. 2011; 364(11): 987-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Hakeem R. Socio-economic differences in height and body mass index of children and adults living in urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001; 55(5): 400-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Abalkhail B. Overweight and obesity among Saudi Arabian children and adolescents between 1994 and 2000. East Mediterr Health J. 2002; 8(4-5): 470-9[PubMed]
  • 30. Kelishadi R, Pour MH, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Sadry GH, Ansari R, Alikhassy H, et al. Obesity and associated modifiable environmental factors in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program - Heart Health Promotion from Childhood. Pediatr Int. 2003; 45(4): 435-42[PubMed]
  • 31. Baygi F, Qorbani M, Dorosty AR, Kelishadi R, Asayesh H, Rezapour A, et al. Dietary predictors of childhood obesity in a representative sample of children in north east of Iran. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013; 15(7): 501-8[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments