Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Frequency of Head and Neck Masses in Iranian Children During a 21-Year Period

Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi 1 , * , Mohammad Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani 2 , 3 , Mohammad-Javad Kharazi-Fard 4 and Rezvan Kalantar 5
Authors Information
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Childen's Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran, Iran
4 Research Center, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: December 31, 2018, 28 (6); e64087
  • Published Online: September 25, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 15, 2017
  • Revised: August 4, 2018
  • Accepted: August 17, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.64087

To Cite: Moradzadeh Khiavi M, Haghi-Ashtiani M T, Kharazi-Fard M , Kalantar R. Frequency of Head and Neck Masses in Iranian Children During a 21-Year Period, Iran J Pediatr. 2018 ; 28(6):e64087. doi: 10.5812/ijp.64087.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Glickman A, Karlis V. Pediatric benign soft tissue oral and maxillofacial pathology. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2016;28(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2015.07.005. [PubMed: 26614696].
  • 2. Carvalho GM, Lavor MS, Rickli JCK, Takara TFM, Guimaraes AC, Crespo AN. Pediatric neck mass. Int J Pediatr. 2015;3(6-1):1005-14.
  • 3. Ozolek JA. Selective pathologies of the head and neck in children: A developmental perspective. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009;16(5):332-58. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3181b50571. [PubMed: 19700943].
  • 4. Ragesh KP, Chana RS, Varshney PK, Naim M. Head and neck masses in children: A clinicopathological study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;54(4):268-71. doi: 10.1007/BF02993740. [PubMed: 23119908]. [PubMed Central: PMC3450473].
  • 5. Brigger MT, Cunningham MJ. Malignant cervical masses in children. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2015;48(1):59-77. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2014.09.006. [PubMed: 25442128].
  • 6. Ayugi J, Ogengo J, Macharia I, Olabu B. Pattern of acquired neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40(4):384-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2010.10.019. [PubMed: 21129917].
  • 7. Goins MR, Beasley MS. Pediatric neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2012;24(3):457-68. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2012.05.006. [PubMed: 22857718].
  • 8. The Statistics Portal. Proportion of selected age groups of world population in 2016, by region. New York: Statista; 2017. Available from:
  • 9. Statistical Center of Iran. Selected results of the 2016 national population and housing census. Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran,; 2017. Available from:
  • 10. Fattahi S, Vosoughhosseini S, Moradzadeh Khiavi M, Mahmoudi SM, Emamverdizadeh P, Noorazar SG, et al. Prevalence of head and neck tumors in children under 12 years of age referred to the Pathology Department of Children's Hospital in Tabriz during a 10-year period. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2015;9(2):96-100. doi: 10.15171/joddd.2015.019. [PubMed: 26236435]. [PubMed Central: PMC4517312].
  • 11. Larizadeh MH, Damghani MA, Shabani M. Epidemiological characteristics of head and neck cancers in southeast of Iran. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2014;7(2):80-6. [PubMed: 25250154]. [PubMed Central: PMC4142945].
  • 12. Lucumay EM, Gilyoma JM, Rambau PF, Chalya PL. Paediatric neck masses at a university teaching hospital in northwestern Tanzania: A prospective analysis of 148 cases. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:772. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-772. [PubMed: 25362965]. [PubMed Central: PMC4232708].
  • 13. Al-Mayoof AF. Neck masses in paediatric population: An experience with children attended the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics in Baghdad 2008-2009. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2015;12(2):136-9. doi: 10.4103/0189-6725.160364. [PubMed: 26168753]. [PubMed Central: PMC4955415].
  • 14. Erikci V, Hosgor M. Management of congenital neck lesions in children. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014;67(9):e217-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2014.05.018. [PubMed: 24953290].
  • 15. Osifo OD, Ugiagbe EE. Neck masses in children: Etiopathology in a tertiary center. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14(2):232-6. doi: 10.4103/1119-3077.84027. [PubMed: 21860146].
  • 16. Shengwei H, Zhiyong W, Wei H, Qingang H. The management of pediatric neck masses. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26(2):399-401. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001342. [PubMed: 25759917].
  • 17. Abdulai AE, Nuamah IK, Gyasi R. Head and neck tumours in Ghanaian children. A 20 year review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41(11):1378-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2012.06.004. [PubMed: 22771221].
  • 18. Al Yamani AO, Al Sebaei MO, Bassyoni LJ, Badghaish AJ, Shawly HH. Variation of pediatric and adolescents head and neck pathology in the city of Jeddah: A retrospective analysis over 10 years. Saudi Dent J. 2011;23(4):197-200. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2011.09.002. [PubMed: 23960516]. [PubMed Central: PMC3723275].
  • 19. Khademi B, Taraghi A, Mohammadianpanah M. Anatomical and histopathological profile of head and neck neoplasms in Persian pediatric and adolescent population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73(9):1249-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.05.017. [PubMed: 19525017].
  • 20. Ayugi JW, Ogeng'o JA, Macharia IM. Pattern of congenital neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74(1):64-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.10.012. [PubMed: 19962770].
  • 21. Al-Khateeb TH, Al Zoubi F. Congenital neck masses: A descriptive retrospective study of 252 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(11):2242-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2006.11.039. [PubMed: 17954320].
  • 22. Balikci HH, Gurdal MM, Ozkul MH, Karakas M, Uvacin O, Kara N, et al. Neck masses: diagnostic analysis of 630 cases in Turkish population. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270(11):2953-8. doi: 10.1007/s00405-013-2445-9. [PubMed: 23525652].
  • 23. Bagheri SC, Bell RB, Khan HA. Current therapy in oral and maxillofacial surgery. 1st ed. Saint Louis: W.B: Saunders; 2012.
  • 24. Adeyemo A, Okolo C. Pediatric head and neck malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. J Pediatr Sci. 2012;4(4):1-9.
  • 25. Gov-Ari E, Leann Hopewell B. Correlation between pre-operative diagnosis and post-operative pathology reading in pediatric neck masses--a review of 281 cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79(1):2-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.11.011. [PubMed: 25479698].
  • 26. Schwartz I, Hughes C, Brigger MT. Pediatric head and neck malignancies: Incidence and trends, 1973-2010. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;152(6):1127-32. doi: 10.1177/0194599815575714. [PubMed: 25820588].
  • 27. Shojaei S, Zargaran M, Baghaei F, Farhadifar H, Dehbani Z, Faradmal J, et al. Frequency of head and neck cancers in Children and adolescents in an Iranian population from 1989 to 2009. Avicenna J Dent Res. 2015;7(2). doi: 10.17795/ajdr-25249.
  • 28. Gosche JR, Vick L. Acute, subacute, and chronic cervical lymphadenitis in children. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2006;15(2):99-106. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2006.02.007. [PubMed: 16616313].
  • 29. Badawy MK. Pediatric neck masses. Clin Pediatr Emerg Med. 2010;11(2):73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.cpem.2010.05.004.
  • 30. LaRiviere CA, Waldhausen JH. Congenital cervical cysts, sinuses, and fistulae in pediatric surgery. Surg Clin North Am. 2012;92(3):583-97. viii. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2012.03.015. [PubMed: 22595710].
  • 31. Rosa PA, Hirsch DL, Dierks EJ. Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20(3):339-52. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2008.03.003. [PubMed: 18603195].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments