Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Efficacy of a Triple Anti-Infective Regimen for Prevention of Complications in Critically Ill Term Neonates

Bernhard Resch 1 , 2 , * , Kathrin Leonhardt 2 and Berndt Urlesberger 1
Authors Information
1 Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria
2 Research Unit for Neonatal Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Medical University of Graz, Austria
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: June 2018, 28 (3); e64845
  • Published Online: May 23, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 6, 2017
  • Revised: January 26, 2018
  • Accepted: March 1, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.64845

To Cite: Resch B, Leonhardt K, Urlesberger B. Efficacy of a Triple Anti-Infective Regimen for Prevention of Complications in Critically Ill Term Neonates, Iran J Pediatr. 2018 ; 28(3):e64845. doi: 10.5812/ijp.64845.

Copyright © 2018, Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Wang Y, Gao L, Zhang YH, Shi CS, Ren CM. Efficacy of probiotic therapy in full-term infants with critical illness. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(4):575-80. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.4.14. [PubMed: 25516315].
  • 2. Alberda C, Gramlich L, Meddings J, Field C, McCargar L, Kutsogiannis D, et al. Effects of probiotic therapy in critically ill patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(3):816-23. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/85.3.816. [PubMed: 17344505].
  • 3. Friedman G. The role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile colitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2012;41(4):763-79. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2012.08.002. [PubMed: 23101686].
  • 4. Neu J, Walker WA. Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(3):255-64. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1005408. [PubMed: 21247316]. [PubMed Central: PMC3628622].
  • 5. Li QY, An Y, Liu L, Wang XQ, Chen S, Wang ZL, et al. Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Early- and Late-Onset Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Full-Term Infants: A Retrospective Case-Control Study. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43042. doi: 10.1038/srep43042. [PubMed: 28211488]. [PubMed Central: PMC5314368].
  • 6. Apisarnthanarak A, Holzmann-Pazgal G, Hamvas A, Olsen MA, Fraser VJ. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in extremely preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit: characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2003;112(6 Pt 1):1283-9. [PubMed: 14654598].
  • 7. Yuan TM, Chen LH, Yu HM. Risk factors and outcomes for ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(4):334-8. doi: 10.1515/JPM.2007.065. [PubMed: 17547540].
  • 8. Hidron AI, Edwards JR, Patel J, Horan TC, Sievert DM, Pollock DA, et al. NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006-2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(11):996-1011. doi: 10.1086/591861. [PubMed: 18947320].
  • 9. Bradley JS. Considerations unique to pediatrics for clinical trial design in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51 Suppl 1:S136-43. doi: 10.1086/653063. [PubMed: 20597664].
  • 10. Edwards JR, Peterson KD, Andrus ML, Dudeck MA, Pollock DA, Horan TC, et al. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Report, data summary for 2006 through 2007, issued November 2008. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(9):609-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.08.001. [PubMed: 18992647].
  • 11. Persson E, Trollfors B, Brandberg LL, Tessin I. Septicaemia and meningitis in neonates and during early infancy in the Goteborg area of Sweden. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(10):1087-92. [PubMed: 12434895].
  • 12. Grylack LJ, Scanlon JW. Oral gentamicin therapy in the prevention of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. A controlled double-blind trial. Am J Dis Child. 1978;132(12):1192-4. [PubMed: 362900].
  • 13. Egan EA, Mantilla G, Nelson RM, Eitzman DV. A prospective controlled trial of oral kanamycin in the prevention of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr. 1976;89(3):467-70. [PubMed: 784926].
  • 14. Birck MM, Nguyen DN, Cilieborg MS, Kamal SS, Nielsen DS, Damborg P, et al. Enteral but not parenteral antibiotics enhance gut function and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed newborn preterm pigs. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310(5):G323-33. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00392.2015. [PubMed: 26680737].
  • 15. AlFaleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4). CD005496. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005496.pub4. [PubMed: 24723255].
  • 16. Schmolzer G, Urlesberger B, Haim M, Kutschera J, Pichler G, Ritschl E, et al. Multi-modal approach to prophylaxis of necrotizing enterocolitis: clinical report and review of literature. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22(7):573-80. doi: 10.1007/s00383-006-1709-5. [PubMed: 16775708].
  • 17. Bell MJ, Ternberg JL, Feigin RD, Keating JP, Marshall R, Barton L, et al. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Therapeutic decisions based upon clinical staging. Ann Surg. 1978;187(1):1-7. [PubMed: 413500]. [PubMed Central: PMC1396409].
  • 18. Walsh MC, Kliegman RM. Necrotizing enterocolitis: treatment based on staging criteria. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1986;33(1):179-201. [PubMed: 3081865].
  • 19. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A, International Consensus Conference on Pediatric S. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6(1):2-8. doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0000149131.72248.E6. [PubMed: 15636651].
  • 20. Cetinkaya M, Koksal N, Ozkan H. A new scoring system for evaluation of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in premature infants. Am J Crit Care. 2012;21(5):328-37. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2012312. [PubMed: 22941706].
  • 21. Hofer N, Muller W, Resch B. Non-infectious conditions and gestational age influence C-reactive protein values in newborns during the first 3 days of life. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49(2):297-302. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2011.048. [PubMed: 21126207].
  • 22. Strenger V, Gschliesser T, Grisold A, Zarfel G, Feierl G, Masoud L, et al. Orally administered colistin leads to colistin-resistant intestinal flora and fails to prevent faecal colonisation with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria in hospitalised newborns. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;37(1):67-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.09.010. [PubMed: 21074372].
  • 23. Kermorvant-Duchemin E, Laborie S, Rabilloud M, Lapillonne A, Claris O. Outcome and prognostic factors in neonates with septic shock. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9(2):186-91. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e31816689a8. [PubMed: 18477932].
  • 24. Bestati N, Leteurtre S, Duhamel A, Proulx F, Grandbastien B, Lacroix J, et al. Differences in organ dysfunctions between neonates and older children: a prospective, observational, multicenter study. Crit Care. 2010;14(6):R202. doi: 10.1186/cc9323. [PubMed: 21062434]. [PubMed Central: PMC3219976].
  • 25. Proulx F, Joyal JS, Mariscalco MM, Leteurtre S, Leclerc F, Lacroix J. The pediatric multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(1):12-22. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e31819370a9. [PubMed: 19057438].
  • 26. Feickert HJ, Schepers AK, Rodeck B, Geerlings H, Hoyer PF. Incidence, impact on survival, and risk factors for multi-organ system failure in children following liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2001;5(4):266-73. [PubMed: 11472605].
  • 27. Hickey L, Jacobs SE, Garland SM, ProPrems Study G. Probiotics in neonatology. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012;48(9):777-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2012.02508.x. [PubMed: 22862675].
  • 28. Thomas DW, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on N, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Gastroenterology H.Nutrition. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):1217-31. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2548. [PubMed: 21115585].
  • 29. Austin N, Cleminson J, Darlow BA, McGuire W. Prophylactic oral/topical non-absorbed antifungal agents to prevent invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(10). CD003478. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003478.pub5. [PubMed: 26497202].
  • 30. Matsubara VH, Bandara HM, Mayer MP, Samaranayake LP. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(9):1143-53. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw038. [PubMed: 26826375].
  • 31. Manzoni P, Lista G, Gallo E, Marangione P, Priolo C, Fontana P, et al. Routine Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG administration in VLBW infants: a retrospective, 6-year cohort study. Early Hum Dev. 2011;87 Suppl 1:S35-8. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.036. [PubMed: 21295418].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments