Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Status of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Related Factors

Fatemeh Sayarifard 1 , 2 , 3 , Molood Safarirad 2 , Ali Rabbani 1 , 2 , 3 , Azadeh Sayarifard 4 , * , Vahid Ziaee 2 , 3 , 5 , Aria Setoodeh 1 , 2 , 3 and Parastoo Rostami 1 , 2 , 3
Authors Information
1 Growth and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Children’s Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Center for Academic and Health Policy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Pediatric Rheumatology Research Group, Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: August 2017, 27 (4); e9062
  • Published Online: May 18, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: September 21, 2016
  • Revised: March 11, 2017
  • Accepted: April 7, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.9062

To Cite: Sayarifard F, Safarirad M, Rabbani A, Sayarifard A, Ziaee V, et al. Status of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Related Factors, Iran J Pediatr. 2017 ; 27(4):e9062. doi: 10.5812/ijp.9062.

Copyright © 2017, Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Kurra S, Siris E. Diabetes and bone health: the relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis-associated fractures. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011; 27(5): 430-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Schwartz AV, Sellmeyer DE. Diabetes, fracture, and bone fragility. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2007; 5(3): 105-11[PubMed]
  • 3. Janghorbani M, Van Dam RM, Willett WC, Hu FB. Systematic review of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of fracture. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 166(5): 495-505[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Lampropoulos CE, Papaioannou I, D'Cruz DP. Osteoporosis--a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012; 8(10): 587-98[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Hamann C, Kirschner S, Gunther KP, Hofbauer LC. Bone, sweet bone--osteoporotic fractures in diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012; 8(5): 297-305[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Wongdee K, Charoenphandhu N. Osteoporosis in diabetes mellitus: Possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. World J Diabetes. 2011; 2(3): 41-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Sealand R, Razavi C, Adler RA. Diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Curr Diab Rep. 2013; 13(3): 411-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Montagnani A, Gonnelli S, Alessandri M, Nuti R. Osteoporosis and risk of fracture in patients with diabetes: an update. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011; 23(2): 84-90[PubMed]
  • 9. Gurav AN. Advanced glycation end products: a link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus? Curr Diabetes Rev. 2013; 9(5): 355-61[PubMed]
  • 10. Rakel A, Sheehy O, Rahme E, LeLorier J. Osteoporosis among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2008; 34(3): 193-205[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Bid HK, Konwar R, Aggarwal CG, Gautam S, Saxena M, Nayak VL, et al. Vitamin D receptor (FokI, BsmI and TaqI) gene polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a North Indian study. Indian J Med Sci. 2009; 63(5): 187-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Marchetti P, Lupi R, Bugliani M, Kirkpatrick CL, Sebastiani G, Grieco FA, et al. A local glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system in human pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2012; 55(12): 3262-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Khoshhal KI. Childhood osteoporosis. J Taibah Uni Med Sci. 2011; 6(2): 61-76
  • 14. Kindblom JM, Ohlsson C, Ljunggren O, Karlsson MK, Tivesten A, Smith U, et al. Plasma osteocalcin is inversely related to fat mass and plasma glucose in elderly Swedish men. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24(5): 785-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Gerdhem P, Isaksson A, Akesson K, Obrant KJ. Increased bone density and decreased bone turnover, but no evident alteration of fracture susceptibility in elderly women with diabetes mellitus. Osteoporos Int. 2005; 16(12): 1506-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Gennari L, Merlotti D, Valenti R, Ceccarelli E, Ruvio M, Pietrini MG, et al. Circulating sclerostin levels and bone turnover in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(5): 1737-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Schmidt-Bleek K, Schell H, Lienau J, Schulz N, Hoff P, Pfaff M, et al. Initial immune reaction and angiogenesis in bone healing. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2014; 8(2): 120-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Menegazzo L, Albiero M, Avogaro A, Fadini GP. Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus. Biofactors. 2012; 38(3): 194-202[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Tsentidis C, Gourgiotis D, Kossiva L, Marmarinos A, Doulgeraki A, Karavanaki K. Sclerostin distribution in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlation with bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016; 17(4): 289-99[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Pan H, Wu N, Yang T, He W. Association between bone mineral density and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014; 30(7): 531-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Onder A, Cetinkaya S, Tunc O, Aycan Z. Evaluation of bone mineral density in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 26(11-12): 1077-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Leger J, Marinovic D, Alberti C, Dorgeret S, Chevenne D, Marchal CL, et al. Lower bone mineral content in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus is linked to female sex, low insulin-like growth factor type I levels, and high insulin requirement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(10): 3947-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Vazquez Gamez MA, Marin Perez JM, Montoya Garcia MJ. Evolution of bone mass in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Medicina Clinica. 2008; 130(14): 526-30
  • 24. Loureiro MB, Ururahy MA, Freire-Neto FP, Oliveira GH, Duarte VM, Luchessi AD, et al. Low bone mineral density is associated to poor glycemic control and increased OPG expression in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 103(3): 452-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Heilman K, Zilmer M, Zilmer K, Tillmann V. Lower bone mineral density in children with type 1 diabetes is associated with poor glycemic control and higher serum ICAM-1 and urinary isoprostane levels. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009; 27(5): 598-604[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Karaguzel G, Akcurin S, Ozdem S, Boz A, Bircan I. Bone mineral density and alterations of bone metabolism in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 19(6): 805-14[PubMed]
  • 27. Svoren BM, Volkening LK, Wood JR, Laffel LM. Significant vitamin D deficiency in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr. 2009; 154(1): 132-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Bucan K, Ivanisevic M, Zemunik T, Boraska V, Skrabic V, Vatavuk Z, et al. Retinopathy and nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients--association with polymorphysms of vitamin D-receptor, TNF, Neuro-D and IL-1 receptor 1 genes. Coll Antropol. 2009; 33 Suppl 2: 99-105[PubMed]
  • 29. Tahrani AA, Ball A, Shepherd L, Rahim A, Jones AF, Bates A. The prevalence of vitamin D abnormalities in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the UK. Int J Clin Pract. 2010; 64(3): 351-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Motlaghzadeh Y, Sayarifard F, Allahverdi B, Rabbani A, Setoodeh A, Sayarifard A, et al. Assessment of Vitamin D Status and Response to Vitamin D3 in Obese and Non-Obese Iranian Children. J Trop Pediatr. 2016; 62(4): 269-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Diaz VA, Mainous AG, 3rd, Carek PJ, Wessell AM, Everett CJ. The association of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency with diabetic nephropathy: implications for health disparities. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009; 22(5): 521-7[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments