Iranian Journal of Pediatrics

Published by: Kowsar

Toilet Training and Influencing Factors that Affect Initiation and Duration of Training: A Cross Sectional Study

Jumana Hanna Albaramki 1 , * , Manar Awad Allawama 1 and Al-Motassem Fahme Yousef 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
2 Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Pediatrics: June 2017, 27 (3); e9656
  • Published Online: June 12, 2017
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 10, 2016
  • Revised: February 1, 2017
  • Accepted: April 7, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijp.9656

To Cite: Hanna Albaramki J, Awad Allawama M, Fahme Yousef A. Toilet Training and Influencing Factors that Affect Initiation and Duration of Training: A Cross Sectional Study, Iran J Pediatr. 2017 ; 27(3):e9656. doi: 10.5812/ijp.9656.

Copyright © 2017, Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Stadtler AC, Gorski PA, Brazelton TB. Toilet training methods, clinical interventions, and recommendations. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 1999; 103(6 Pt 2): 1359-68[PubMed]
  • 2. Brazelton TB. A child-oriented approach to toilet training. Pediatrics. 1962; 29: 121-8[PubMed]
  • 3. Foxx RM, Azrin NH. Dry pants: a rapid method of toilet training children. Behav Res Ther. 1973; 11(4): 435-42[PubMed]
  • 4. Kaerts N, Van Hal G, Vermandel A, Wyndaele JJ. Readiness signs used to define the proper moment to start toilet training: a review of the literature. Neurourol Urodyn. 2012; 31(4): 437-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Schum TR, Kolb TM, McAuliffe TL, Simms MD, Underhill RL, Lewis M. Sequential acquisition of toilet-training skills: a descriptive study of gender and age differences in normal children. Pediatrics. 2002; 109(3)[PubMed]
  • 6. Schum TR, McAuliffe TL, Simms MD, Walter JA, Lewis M, Pupp R. Factors associated with toilet training in the 1990s. Ambul Pediatr. 2001; 1(2): 79-86[PubMed]
  • 7. Vermandel A, Van Kampen M, Van Gorp C, Wyndaele JJ. How to toilet train healthy children? A review of the literature. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008; 27(3): 162-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. van Nunen K, Kaerts N, Wyndaele JJ, Vermandel A, Hal GV. Parents' views on toilet training (TT): A quantitative study to identify the beliefs and attitudes of parents concerning TT. J Child Health Care. 2015; 19(2): 265-74[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Koc I, Camurdan AD, Beyazova U, Ilhan MN, Sahin F. Toilet training in Turkey: the factors that affect timing and duration in different sociocultural groups. Child Care Health Dev. 2008; 34(4): 475-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Tarhan H, Cakmak O, Akarken I, Ekin RG, Un S, Uzelli D, et al. Toilet training age and influencing factors: a multicenter study. Turk J Pediatr. 2015; 57(2): 172-6[PubMed]
  • 11. Hooman N, Safaii A, Valavi E, Amini-Alavijeh Z. Toilet training in Iranian children: a cross-sectional study. Iran J Pediatr. 2013; 23(2): 154-8[PubMed]
  • 12. Blum NJ, Taubman B, Nemeth N. Relationship between age at initiation of toilet training and duration of training: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2003; 111(4 Pt 1): 810-4[PubMed]
  • 13. Blum NJ, Taubman B, Nemeth N. Why is toilet training occurring at older ages? A study of factors associated with later training. J Pediatr. 2004; 145(1): 107-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Martin JA, King DR, Maccoby EE, Jacklin CN. Secular trends and individual differences in toilet-training progress. J Pediatr Psychol. 1984; 9(4): 457-67[PubMed]
  • 15. Lang ME. Among healthy children, what toilet-training strategy is most effective and prevents fewer adverse events (stool withholding and dysfunctional voiding)?: Part B: Clinical commentary. Paediatr Child Health. 2008; 13(3): 203-4[PubMed]
  • 16. Klassen TP, Kiddoo D, Lang ME, Friesen C, Russell K, Spooner C, et al. The effectiveness of different methods of toilet training for bowel and bladder control. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2006; (147): 1-57[PubMed]
  • 17. Taubman B. Toilet training and toileting refusal for stool only: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 1997; 99(1): 54-8[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments